The way of being cynical of the leaders

  • Álvaro Zapata Domínguez


Bédard (1995, 2002), has identified three mannersof being, that she designates as the “Way ofbeing mythical”, the “Way of being systematic”,and the “Way of being pragmatic”. A fourth wayof being, the “Way of being relational” has beenproposed by Alain Chanlat (1995). These waysof being, are for the authors, the manifestation ofbig trends in Western thought. In this context, inthe present article, the “Way of being cynical” ofthe leaders is developed. The fundamental valuesthat distinguish the cynicism are: resistance,impassivity and evil


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Author Biography

Álvaro Zapata Domínguez
Ph.D. (Management) HEC-Montreal, Profesor Titular Universidad del Valle
How to Cite
ZAPATA DOMÍNGUEZ, Álvaro. The way of being cynical of the leaders. Cuadernos de Administración, [S.l.], v. 25, n. 41, p. 81-92, nov. 2011. ISSN 2256-5078. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 mar. 2019. doi:


Manners of Being, cynicism, Way of Being cynical, leaders