Sectorial adjustment costs induced by the Colombian pattern of international trade, 1991-2015
The objective of the paper is to analyze the adjustment costs induced by Colombia’s international trade pattern for the period 1991-2015. The methodology focuses on the calculation of marginal intra-industry trade indexes, the adjustment cost index and the use of the graphical tool known as the International Adjustment Cost Space. The data come from the Sistema Armonizado (Harmonized System) by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (National Administrative Department of Statistics), which reports the International Standard Industrial Classification at 4 digits. The main results are: (1) Economic sectors such as Substances and chemical products, plastic and rubber products, metal products, textiles and clothing, and wood products show lower adjustment costs, which is beneficial for Colombia because these are sectors with significant participation in the generation of employment and added value. (2) Trade in these sectors occupies important positions with countries with whom Colombia shares similar relative factor endowments such as Chile, Mexico, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador. Thus, increased intra-industry trade may lead to lower adjustment pressures on domestic factors of production.
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