Main Article Content

This study explains the Entrepreneurial Intent (EI) of university students enrolled in engineering programs at the public university of the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, in terms of the three constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior, formal (entrepreneurship education) and informal (the entrepreneurial demonstrated behavior of family and friends) institutional factors, and two individual traits (innovativeness and need of achievement). The conceptual model proposed also examines the role of entrepreneurship education in strengthening entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Survey data is analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings indicate entrepreneurial attitudes have the most significant predictive ability on entrepreneurial intention over entrepreneurial education and the manifest entrepreneurial actions of close social groups that have only a moderate influence on EI. The analysis also confirms that entrepreneurship education enhances entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Based on these results, it is recommended that Engineering Schools devote more attention to experiential learning to create favorable entrepreneurial attitudes and develop students’ entrepreneurial skills, particularly among those with a high need for achievement.

Pilar Ester Arroyo, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Professor, EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Toluca, Mexico. Bachelor Degree in Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Mexico, Doctor in Business Administration, EGADE Business School with acknowledgment of University of Texas at Austin, Mexico.

María de Lourdes Cárcamo-Solís, Universidad de Guanajuato

Professor, Department of Multidisciplinary Studies, Universidad de Guanajuato, México. Bachelor degree in Economics, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, Doctor in Social Sciences and Politics, Universidad Iberoamericana, México.

Héctor Cuevas-Vargas, Universidad Tecnológica del Suroeste de Guanajuato

Research Professor, Department of Business Development, Universidad Tecnológica del Suroeste de Guanajuato, México. Bachelor Degree in Law, Universidad Quetzalcóatl, Ciudad de México, México, Doctor in Administrative Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, México.

Salvador Estrada-Rodríguez, Universidad de Guanajuato Campus Celaya-Salvatierra

 

Professor, Department of Finance and Business, Universidad de Guanajuato Campus Celaya-Salvatierra, México. Bachelor Degree in Industrial Biochemical Engineer, Mexico. Doctor en Ciencias Administrativas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España.

Arroyo, P. E., Cárcamo-Solís, M. de L. ., Cuevas-Vargas, H. ., & Estrada-Rodríguez, S. . (2021). A framework explaining the entrepreneurial intentions of engineering students in public universities. Cuadernos De Administración, 37(71), e2210736. https://doi.org/10.25100/cdea.v37i71.10736

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665-683. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00236.x

Almahry, F. F., Sarea, A. M., & Hamdan, A. M. (2018). A Review Paper on Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurs’ Skills. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 21(2S), 1-7. https://goo.su/8sKJ

Atsan, Y. G. N. (2006). Entrepreneurial characteristics amongst university students. Education + Training, 48(1), 25-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090599410068024

Baidi & Suyatno. (2018). Effect of entrepreneurship education, selfefficacy and need for achievement toward students’ entrepreneurship intention: case study, in F. I. Sukarta, Indonesia. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 21(2), 1-16. https://www.abacademies.org/articles/Effect-of-entrepreneurship-education-1528-2651-21-2-161.pdf

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W. H. Freeman Co.

Barbosa Da Silva, G., Gomes Costa, H., & Duarte de Barros, M. (2015). Entrepreneurship in engineering education: a literature review. International Journal of Engineering Education, 31(6-A), 1701-1710. https://bit.ly/3GuVbYT

Barnard, B. & Herbst, D. (2018). Entrepreneurship, innovation, and creativity: the creative process of entrepreneurs and innovators. https://goo.su/8sKe

Bellò, B., Mattana, V., & Loi, M. (2018). The power of peers. A new look at the impact of creativity, social context, and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 24(1), 214-233. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-07-2016-0205

Center for Entrepreneurial Excellence George Washington University. (2014). The National Survey of Entrepreneurship Education. An Overview of 2012-2014 Survey Data. The George Washington University. http://www.nationalsurvey.org/files/2014KauffmanReport_Clean.pdf

Cristina, M. D. (2016). Promoting technological entrepreneurship through sustainable engineering education. Procedia Technology, 22, 1129-1134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2016.01.159

Dao, C. T. H. (2018). A proposal for improving entrepreneurship education for engineering students in Vietnam. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 7(3), 2414-6722. GMP Press and Printing. http://buscompress.com/uploads/3/4/9/8/34980536/riber_7-s3_02k18-137_12-19.pdf

Davey, T., Hannon, P., & Penaluna, A. (2016). Entrepreneurship education and the role of universities in entrepreneurship: Introduction to the special issue. Industry and Higher Education, 30(3), 171-182. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0950422216656699

Din, B. H., Anuar, A. R., & Usman, M. (2016). The effectiveness of the entrepreneurship education program in upgrading entrepreneurial skills among public university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.413

Elmuti, D., Khoury, G., & Omran, O. (2012). Does entrepreneurship education have a role in developing entrepreneurial skills and ventures’ effectiveness? Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 15, 83-98. https://goo.su/8sKD

Farooq, S. M. (2018). Modelling the significance of social support and entrepreneurial skills for determining entrepreneurial behavior of individuals. A structural equation modelling approach. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 14(3), 242-266. https://doi.org/10.1108/WJEMSD-12-2017-0096

Fazlurrahman, H. (2020). Measuring entrepreneurship intention with need for achievement, locus of control, self-efficacy, and readiness instrument: business and engineering student in Indonesia. International Journal of Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurial Research, 6(1), 7-14. https://doi.org/10.18510/ijmier.2020.6127

Ferreira, J. J., Raposo, M. L., Rodrigues, R. G., Dinis, A., & do Paco, A. (2012). A model of entrepreneurial intention, An application of the psychological and behavioral approaches. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(3), 424-440. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001211250144

France 24. (July 2, 2020). OIT: América Latina es la región con más empleos perdidos por cuenta de la pandemia. https://www.france24.com/es/20200701-oit-latinoamerica-desempleo-economia-pandemia-covid19

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications. https://lccn.loc.gov/2016050545

Hammed, I. & Irfan, Z. (2019). Entrepreneurship education: A review of challenges, characteristics, and opportunities. Entrepreneurship Education, 2, 135-148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41959-019-00018-z

Henry, C. & Lewis, K. (2018). A review of entrepreneurship education research: Exploring the contribution of the Education + Training special issues, Education + Training, 60(3), 263-286. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-12-2017-0189

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60. http://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/6596/1/JC-Structural-Equation.pdf

Kallas, E. & Parts, E. (2020). From entrepreneurial intention to enterprise creation: the case of Estonia. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEEE-07-2020-0235

Kautonen, T., Van Gelderen, M., & Fink, M. (2015). Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(3), 655-674. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12056

Kirby, D. A., Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2011). Making Universities More Entrepreneurial: Development of a Model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28(3), 302-316. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjas.220

Klofstena, M., Fayolleb, A., Guerrero, M., Mian, S., Urbano, D., & Wrightf, M. (2019). The entrepreneurial university as driver for economic growth and social change - Key strategic challenges. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 141, 149-158. https://goo.su/8sKg

Kerr, S. P., Kerr, W. R., & Xu, T. (2017). Personality traits of entrepreneurs: A review of recent literature (Working Paper 18-047). Harvard Business School. https://goo.su/8SKK

Laspita, S., Breugst, N., Heblich, H., &, Patzeltb, H. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(4), 414-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2011.11.006

Law, M. Y. & Breznik, K. (2017). Impacts of innovativeness and attitude on entrepreneurial intention: among engineering and non-engineering students. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 27, 683-700. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-016-9373-0

Lee-Ross, D. (2017). An examination of the entrepreneurial intent of MBA students in Australia using the entrepreneurial intention questionnaire. Journal of Management Development, 36(9), 1180-1190. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-10-2016-0200

Leon, D. R. (2017). Developing entrepreneurial skills. An educational and intercultural perspective. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 14(4), 97-121. https://doi.org/10.7341/20171346

Lerchundi, I. P., Morales-Alonso, G., & Vargas, A. M. (2014). Does family matter? A study of parents’ influence on the entrepreneurial intention of technical degrees students in Spain. https://oa.upm.es/36927/1/INVE_MEM_2014_196852.pdf

Liñán, F. & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 5, 593-617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x

Meek, W. R., Pacheco, D. F., & York, J. G. (2010). The impact of social norms on entrepreneurial action: evidence from the environmental entrepreneurship context. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 493-509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.09.007

Mueller, S. A. & Thomas, A. (2000). Case for comparative entrepreneurship: assessing the relevance of culture. Journal of International Business Studies, 31, 287-301. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490906

Munir, H., Jianfeng, C., & Ramzan, S. (2019). Personality traits and theory of planned behavior comparison of entrepreneurial intentions between an emerging economy and a developing country. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 25(3), 554-580. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-05-2018-0336

Muzychenko, O. (2008). Cross-cultural entrepreneurial competence in identifying international business opportunities. European Management Journal, 26(6), 366-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2008.09.002

National Institute of Statistics and Geography [INEGI] (2020). Encuesta sobre el Impacto Económico Generado por COVID-19 en las Empresas (ECOVID-IE) 2020. https://www.inegi.org.mx/programas/ecovidie/2020/

Oyugi, L. (2015). The Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on the Relationship Between Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions of University students. Journal of Entrepreneurship Management and Innovation, 11(2), 31-56. https://doi.org/10.7341/20151122

Passaro, R., Quinto, I., & Thomas, A. (2018). The impact of higher education on entrepreneurial intention and human capital. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(4), 1469-1930. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIC-04-2017-0056

Pérez-Zavala, M. G., Molina-Sanchez, R., Schmitt, C., y López-Salazar, A. (2019). Emprendimiento en dos universidades públicas: Universidad de Guanajuato, México y Université de Lorraine, France. Dans Projectics, 2(23), 99-116. https://www.cairn.info/revue-projectique-2019-2-page-99.htm

Pihie, Z. A. L., & Bagheri, A. (2013). Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Intention: The Mediation Effect of Self-Regulation. Vocations and Learning, 6, 385-401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-013-9101-9

Pittaway, L., & Cope, J. (2006). Entrepreneurship Education: A Systematic Review of the Evidence (Working Paper 002/2006). National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/load?doi=10.1.1.473.4972&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Pugh, R., Lamine, W., Jack, S., & Hamilton, E. (2018). The entrepreneurial university and the region: what role for entrepreneurship departments? European Planning Studies, 26(9), 1835-1855. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2018.1447551

Popescu, C. C., Bostan, I., Robu, A. M., Maxim, A., & Diaconu, L. (2016). An analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among students: A Romanian case study. Sustainability, 8, 771-793. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080771

Ratten, V. (2020). Coronavirus (covid-19) and entrepreneurship: changing life and work landscape. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 32(5), 503-516. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2020.1790167

Robinson, S. & Stubberud, H. A. (2014). Elements of entrepreneurial orientation and their relationship to entrepreneurial intent. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 17(2), 1-11. https://www.abacademies.org/articles/jeevol1722014.pdf

Roy, R., Akhtar, N., & Das, F. (2017). Entrepreneurial intention among science & technology stu­dents in India: extending the theory of planned behavior. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 13, 1013-1041. https://doi.org/10.22610/jebs.v6i9.531

Sabah, S. (2016). Entrepreneurial intention: theory of planned behaviour and the moderation effect of start-up experience. In M. Franco (Ed.), Entrepreneurship Practice-Oriented Perspective. https://goo.su/8skv

Saif, A. & Ghaia, U. (2020). Need for achievement as a predictor of entrepreneurial behavior: the mediating role of entrepreneurial passion for founding and entrepreneurial interest. International Review of Management and Marketing, 10(1), 40-53. https://doi.org/10.32479/irmm.8949

Saral, H. C. & Alpakan, L. (2019). differences in entrepreneurial intention and characteristics according to demographics and other factors. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 364-376. https://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.01.02.32

Santoso, S. (2017). Influence of entrepreneurship education, gender, and parent background to relationship between self-efficacy and entrepreneurship intention. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 9(3), 264-275. http://ijibm.site666.com/IJIBM_Vol9No3_Aug2017.pdf#page=253-

Schjoedt, L., & Craig, J. B. (2017). Development and validation of a unidimensional domain-specific entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 23(1), 98-113. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-11-2015-0251

Schmutzler, J., Andonova, V., & Diaz-Serrano, L. (2019). How context shapes entrepreneurial self-efficacy as a driver of entrepreneurial intentions: A multilevel approach. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 53(5), 880-920. https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258717753142

Shirokova, G. Osiyevskyy, O., & Bogatyreva, K. (2016). Exploring the intention-behavior link in student entrepreneurship: Moderating effects of individual and environmental characteristic. European Management Journal, 34, 386-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2015.12.007

Shinnar, R. S., Hsu, D. K., & Powell, B. C. (2014). Self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, and gender: Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education longitudinally. The International Journal of Management Education, 12(3), 561-570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2014.09.005

Soria-Barreto, K., Honores-Marin, G., Gutiérrez-Zepeda, P., & Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J. (2017). Prior exposure and educational environment towards entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 12(2), 45-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-27242017000200006

Strauser, D. R., Ketz, K., & Keim, J. (2002). The relationship between self-efficacy, locus of control, and work personality. Journal of Rehabilitation, 68(1), 20-26. https://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/the-relationship-between-self-efficacy-locus-of-control-and-work-

Sun, H., Ni, W., Teh, P. L., & Lo, C. (2020). The systematic impact of personal characteristics on entrepreneurial intentions of engineering students. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1072. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01072

Tsai, K. H., Chang, H. C., & Peng, C. Y. (2016). Extending the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: a moderated mediation model. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 12, 445-463. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-014-0351-2

Udayanan, P. (2019). The role of self-efficacy and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the entrepreneurial intentions of graduate students: a study among Omani graduates. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(4), 7-20. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2019.070401

Vamvaka, V., Stoforos, C., Palaskas, T., & Botsaris, C. (2020). Attitude toward entrepreneurship, perceived behavioral control, and entrepreneurial intention: dimensionality, structural relationships, and gender differences. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9(5). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-020-0112-0

Van Gelderen, M., Brand, M., van Praag, M., Bodewes, W., Poutsma, E., & van Gils, A. (2008). Explaining entrepreneurial intentions by means of the theory of planned behaviour. Career Development International, 13(6), 538-559. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430810901688

Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 387-406. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00179.x

Wu, S., Matthews, & Dagher, G. K. (2007). Need for achievement, business goals, and entrepreneurial persistence. Management Research News, 30(12), 928-941. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409170710833358

Yan, J. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurial personality traits on perception of new venture opportunity. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, Fall, 21-35. https://digitalcommons.sacredheart.edu/neje/vol13/iss2/4

Zeffane, R. (2013). Need for achievement, personality and entrepreneurial potential: a study of young adults in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 21(1), 75-105. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218495813500040

Zhao, H. Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265-1272. https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1265