Main Article Content


Social or subjective norms (SN) can be defined as the guidelines that seek to shape the behavior of people within society based on the different beliefs and customs of the distinct groups that comprise it. Usually, SN are not written, but are known by people. Entrepreneurial intention (EI), on the other hand, is a previous step to the creation of a company that does not always take shape in the assembly of new businesses. The objectives of this work were to find associations between the SN and the other variables analyzed, and to identify the SN that determine EI among university researchers in Colombia. The research is descriptive and correlational, and has a non-experimental and cross-sectional design. A stratified random sample is taken from peer evaluators from the Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology, and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The results show that SN do determine the EI of university researchers and that these are related to guidelines that shape their behavior in three ways: a) the positive image of the entrepreneur from values, such as their dedication to work and their autonomy; b) social motivation to become an entrepreneur instead of being employed; and c) admiration for the entrepreneur and money as secondary elements that motivate EI.

Ramiro Parra-Hernández, Universidad del Quindío

Professor, Business Administration Program, Universidad del Quindío, Armenia, Colombia. Public Accountant, Universidad del Quindío, Colombia, Masters in Management of Human Talent, Universidad de Manizales, Colombia

Alejandra Gil-Giraldo, Universidad del Quindío

Student Researcher, Universidad del Quindío, Armenia, Colombia. Industrial Engineer, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia, Master in Administration, Universidad del Quindío, Colombia.

Tarapuez Chamorro, E., Parra-Hernández, R., & Gil-Giraldo, A. (2020). Social Norms and Entrepreneurial Intention in University Researchers in Colombia. Cuadernos De Administración, 36(66), 118–131.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Algieri, B., Aquino, A., & Succurro, M. (2013). Technology transfer offices and academic spin-off creation: the case of Italy. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(4), 382-400. Retrieved from

Bergmann, H., Geissler, M., Hundt, C., & Grave, B. (2018). The climate for entrepreneurship at higher education institutions. Research Policy, 47(4), 700-716.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: The case for Intentions. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442-453. DOI: 10.2307/258091

Bird, B., & Jelinek, M. (1988). The Operation of Entrepreneurial Intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13(2), 21-29. Retrieved from

Cáceres, F., & Aceytuno, M. (2015). Academic spin-offs incubation strategies: the case of the Andalusian region. Cuadernos de Gestión, 15(2), 113-142. Retrieved from

Congreso de Colombia. (2017) Ley N° 1838. Julio 6. Recuperado de

Dehghanpour, A. (2015). The effects of demographic, cognitive and institutional factors on development of entrepreneurial intention: Toward a socio-cognitive model of entrepreneurial career. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 13(3), 1-25.

Diefenbach S., & Ullrich D. (2019). Disrespectful Technologies: Social Norm Conflicts in Digital Worlds. In T. Ahram & C. Falcão (Eds.), Advances in Usability, User Experience and Assistive Technology. AHFE 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (pp. 44-56), vol. 794. Orlando, Florida, USA: Springer.

Emami, A., & Khajeheian, D. (2019). Social Norms and Entrepreneurial Action: The Mediating Role of Opportunity Confidence. Sustainability, 11(158), 1-18.

Entrialgo, M., & Iglesias, V. (2017). Are the Intentions to Entrepreneurship of Men and Women Shaped Differently? The Impact of Entrepreneurial Role-Model Exposure and Entrepreneurship Education. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 8(1), 1-14.

Esfandiar, K., Sharifi-Tehrani, M., Pratt, S., & Altinay, L. (2019). Understanding entrepreneurial intentions: A developed integrated structural model approach. Journal of Business Research, 94, 172-182.

Ferreira J., Fernandes C., & Raposo M. (2018). Measuring and Understanding the Psychological Effects of Entrepreneurial Intentions: Multi-group Analysis. In A. Tur & D. Ribeiro. (Eds.), Contributions to management science. Inside the Mind of the Entrepreneur. Contributions to Management Science: Cognition, personality traits, intention, and gender behavior (pp. 17-31). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

García, F., Gil, E., Ruiz, I., & Sene, P. (2015). Entrepreneurial intentions in diverse development contexts: a cross-cultural comparison between Senegal and Spain. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 11(3), 511-527.

Gálvez, E., Guauña, R., & Pérez, R. (2018). Impacto de la norma social subjetiva en la intención de emprendimiento sostenible: un caso de estudio con estudiantes colombianos. Revista EAN, (85), 57-74.

Goethner, M., Obschonka, M, Silbereisen, R., & Cantner, U. (2012). Scientists’ transition to academic entrepreneurship: Economic and psychological determinants. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33(3), 628-641.

Grünhagen, M., & Volkmann, C. (2014). Antecedents of academics’ entrepreneurial intentions-developing a people-oriented model for university entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 6(2), 179-200. Retrieved from

Hatak, I., Harms, R., & Fink, M. (2015). Age, job identification, and entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(1), 38-53.

Huyghe, A., & Knockaert, M. (2015). The influence of organizational culture and climate on entrepreneurial intentions among research scientists. Journal of Technology Transfer, 40(1), 138-160. Retrieved from

Jiménez, Y., y Calderón, G. (2018). Factores culturales que inciden en la creación de spin-off universitarias. Un estudio en una universidad pública colombiana. Estudios Gerenciales, 34(148), 320-335.

Johnson, M., Monsen, E., & Mackenzie, N. (2016). Follow the Leader or the Pack? Regulatory Focus and Academic Entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 34(2), 181-200.

Kallas, E. (2019). Environment-Readiness Entrepreneurship Intention Model: The Case of Estonians and the Russian-Speaking Minority in Estonia. SAGE Open, 9(1), 1-15.

Kibler, E., Kautonen, T., & Fink, M. (2014). Regional social legitimacy of entrepreneurship: Implications for entrepreneurial intention and start-up behavior. Regional Studies, 48(6), 995-1015.

Kilonzo, P., & Nyambegera, S. (2014). Determinants of entrepreneurial intention among university business students in Kenya: Lessons from Kenyatta University. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 22(2), 231-250.

Krueger N. (2017). Entrepreneurial Intentions Are Dead: Long Live Entrepreneurial Intentions. In M. Brännback & A. Carsrud (Eds.), Revisiting the Entrepreneurial Mind. International Studies in Entrepreneurship (13-34). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Laguía, A., Moriano, J., Molero, F., & Gámez, J. (2017). Validación del Cuestionario de Intención Emprendedora en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de Colombia. Universitas Psychologica, 16(1), 1-14.

Lechner, C., Sortheix, F., Oschonka, M., & Salmela, K. (2018). What drives future business leaders? How work values and gender shape young adults’ entrepreneurial and leadership aspirations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 57-70.

Liñán, F., Urbano, D. & Guerrero, M. (2011). Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: start-up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 23(3-4), 187-215.

Liñán, F., & Fayolle, A. (2015). A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 907-933.

Marín, L., Rubio, A., y Sánchez, M. (2015). El impacto del entorno del estudiante en sus intenciones de crear una empresa cuando finalice sus estudios. Lan Harremanak, (32), 504-526. doi: 10.1387/lan-harremanak.15443

Meoli, M., & Vismara, S. (2016). University support and the creation of technology and non-technology academic spin-offs. Small Business Economics, 47(2), 345-362.

Naranjo Africano, G. (2011). Spin-off académica en Colombia: estrategias para su desarrollo. Multiciencias, 11(1), 35-43. Recuperado de

Pedraza, A., León, J., & Betancur, C. (2015). Which professors are helping universities to transfer technology by creating Spin Off?, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 546-554.

Rajaeian, M., Cater, A., & Lane, M. (2018). Determinants of effective knowledge transfer from academic researchers to industry practitioners. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 47, 37-52.

Roessner, D., Bond, J., Okubo, S., & Planting, M. (2013). The economic impact of licensed commercialized inventions originating in university research. Research Policy, 42(1), 23-34.

Roy, R., Akhtar, F., & Das, N. (2017). Entrepreneurial intention among science & technology students in India: extending the theory of planned behavior. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13(4), 1013-1041.

Schervish, P. (2016). Making money and making a self: The moral career of entrepreneurs. In I. Hay & J. Beaverstock. Handbook on Wealth and the Super-Rich (132-154). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Shiri, N., Shinnar, R., Mirakzadeh, A., & Zarafshani, K. (2017). Cultural values and entrepreneurial intentions among agriculture students in Iran. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13(4), 1157-1179.

Shirokova, G., Tsukanova, T., & Morris, M. (2018). The Moderating Role of National Culture in the Relationship between University Entrepreneurship Offerings and Student Start‐Up Activity: an Embeddedness Perspective. Journal of Small Business Management, 56(1), 103-130.

Robert, F., Shoubaki, A., Lasch, F., & Dana, L. (2016). Linking types of ICT entrepreneurs to new firm survival. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 30(1), 110-146.

Schaper, M. (2016). Understanding the Green Entrepreneur. In M. Schaper (Edi.). Making Ecopreneurs (1-14), 2nd edi. London, UK: Routledge.

Silveira, A., Santino, F., & Olivense, H. (2017). Entrepreneurial intention of the participants of the startup weekend: Longitudinal Analysis. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 6(1), 90-102. Retrieved from

Souza, R., & Silveira, A. (2018). Intención emprendedora en contexto universitario brasileño. Revista Gestão Universitária na América Latina, 11(2), 297-318.

Tarapuez, E., García, D., y Castellano, N. (2015). Elementos para la construcción de un instrumento que permita medir la intención empresarial en estudiantes universitarios de último semestre. Tendencias, 16(2), 209-227. Recuperado de

Tarapuez, E., Guzmán, B., y Parra, R. (2018). Factores que determinan la intención emprendedora en América Latina. Suma de Negocios, 9(19), 56-67.

Tarapuez, E., Aristizábal, J., & Castellano, N. (2019). Entrepreneurial intent in Latin America. the case of Mexico, Brazil and Colombia. In D. Estevez, D. Scarf, P. Pinheiro, H. Arahanga, & J. Hunter (Eds.), Global Perspectives on University Students (pp. 201-232). New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers Inc. Recuperado de

Tran, D., Bui, T., Nguyen, H., & Mai, M. (2018, June). The antecedents of entrepreneurial intention a study among graduate students in Ho Chi Minh City. 6th International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam, IFMBE Proceedings, 63.

Yaseen, A., Saleem, A., Zahra, S., & Israr, M. (2018). Precursory effects on entrepreneurial behaviour in the agri-food industry. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 10(1), 2-22.

Received 2019-08-13
Accepted 2020-04-06
Published 2020-01-15